STEEL CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURES

Steel construction structure is a construction system where all the conveyor systems are produced of , which are especially preferred at geographical locations where earthquake is a threat, which are mostly used at steel construction factory buildings, steel construction hangar, steel construction sport plants, steel construction warehouse and steel construction plants, which have a long span and height.
In our Country the majority of urbanization in our Country is concentrated at the 1st and 2nd degree earthquake zones. Considering this the demand for steel construction systems was quiet low in the past.  Compared to other bearing systems, steel structures have much superior mechanical properties, static capabilities and simpler application. Steel construction structures such as steel construction, steel buildings, steel homes, steel structures are rapidly becoming widespread due to being fast, safe and economic and having certain standards.
Where Are Steel Construction Structures Being Used?
Steel construction structures are mainly steel factory buildings, steel industrial buildings, aircraft hangars, sport facilities, steel construction hangars, steel construction workshops and steel construction warehouses.

What Are the Advantages Steel Construction Structures?
Because they are lightweight, steel construction structures are subjected to lower earthquake loads, they are strong, and they save time and labour in production and assembly. Different construction systems may be employed in steel construction structures.
Steel construction structures can be installed rapidly, removed and reinstalled numerous times and have a long life. Steel is 100% recyclable and no matter how many times it is recycled, it does not lose any attributes and stays eco-friendly.
Çelik yapıların depreme dayanıklılığı
EARTHQUAKE Resistance of Steel Structures;

As the structure weight decreases, the earthquake force applied on the structure shall also decrease. Structure weight in steel structures is approximately 50% less than reinforced concrete structures therefore the earthquake force applied on the structure shall decrease in the same rate. Steel is a ductile material. It is 18 times more ductile than reinforced concrete. Ductility provides power holding ability on the deformation of elastic behaviour, therefore this property becomes really important under dynamic loads. The unidirectional and limited energy absorption ability of reinforced concrete structures is lowered and corrupted in every repetition of repeated loading and breakage occurs before deformation. But in steel structure, when the elastic boundaries are exceeded, or in other words, when loads exceeding expectations are applied on the structure, steel structure elements transform and deform first, thanks to their high transformation capacities. The energy generated during transformation is absorbed and in order to ensure structures can stand up under applied forces and deformation to occur on structural elements, the load needs to be able to disperse between beams and columns. To make this possible, it must be ensured that beam-column joints of steel structures have sufficient moment capacity for load transfer.

Some of the reasons behind the superior performance displayed by steel framed structures against earthquake;

• Steel framed structures are high resistant and light. These attributes provide more economic construction of earthquake resistant structures with steel.

• All the engineering related properties of structural steel are well known, consistent and well-understood. This makes the behaviour of steel framed structures more reliable than others.

• Structural steel displays a non-changing behaviour against repeated loads until non-elastic border. This ductility, or the capability to resist against repeating loads without breaking ensures steel framed structures resist against vertical and horizontal design loads with great deformations.

• Simple and semi-rigid steel element joints are rotatable and ductile; thus reducing dynamic energy, and ensuring that the steel frames carrying vertical load provide a strong and reliable support to the main system countering the horizontal forces. This support system has prevented the structures from collapsing in many cases where the main system has not been soundly design or was not working properly.

• Steel framed structures are less sensitive against errors of design and construction, when compared to other structures made with brittle (fragile) materials such as concrete. Furthermore, the risk of error is almost non-existent in the steel frame elements being produced in factories with very simple inspections. The same applies for their very simple installation. For example; various errors such as wrong mounting of column vertical reinforcements, ties, or having too great intervals lead to collapsing of many reinforced concrete structures during earthquakes, but these errors are not possible in steel framed structures.

• Quite the contrary to reinforced concrete framed and masonry structures which suffer great damages in earthquakes; the damaged structures of steel framed structures can be rapidly and economically repaired or replaced without the need of a wide scale demolition or disassembly.

• Modern production machines and the increased works in factories have led to increased quality checks and more reliable performance.

• High resistance against earthquakes, developed fabrication opportunities and auxiliary materials make it possible for steel framed structures to be used near fault lines, even in the areas where earthquake is highly effective by taking simple special measures.

• In addition, looking at the structures conforming to the former Standards with lower sanctions, those with steel frames made it with minimum damage through earthquakes, while most of those made with other materials were either completely collapsed or suffered heavy damages to become unusable.

Results

The usage rate of structural stÇelik yapıların depreme dayanıklılığıeel in the developed nations ranges between 30% and 55%, while in our country, unfortunately, it is lower than 5%. After the earthquake on August 17, 1999, steel became a main issue, and as well as the existing steel production stores trying to develop their technologies, we also see that new entrepreneurs are becoming interested in the sector. By using structural steel in the bearing systems of constructions, it is possible to create structure designs in various geometries and forms, which are not possible with other materials. Because of it’s characteristics, steel material is known to be suitable for structures in earthquake areas, and the practical results are proof of that. This fact needs to be told to everybody by designers and users

Sonuçlar

Dünyada gelişmiş ülkelerde yapısal çeliğin %30 ile %55 ler arasında değişen kullanım oranı, ülkemizde maalesef %5 oranının altındadır. 17 Ağustos 1999 depreminden sonra çelik yaygın olarak gündeme gelmiş, mevcut çelik imalat atölyelerinin teknolojilerinin geliştirmeye çalışmaları yanısıra yeni girişimcilerin sektöre ilgi duyduğunu görmekteyiz. Yapıların taşıyıcı sisteminde yapı eliği kullanarak diğer malzemelerle yapma olanağı olmayan çok değişik geometri ve formlarda yapı tasarımı yapılabilir. Çelik malzemenin deprem bölgelerinde ki yapılar için uygun olduğu gerek bu malzemenin özelikleri gerekse uygulamadan elden edilen sonuçlar sonucu bilinen bir gerçektir. Bu gerçeğin gerek tasarımcılar gerekse uygulayıcıları tarafından herkese anlatılması gerekmektedir.